Not in Benesch Two Studies of the Head of a Man LA Getty Museum

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt*, Two Studies of the Head of an Old Man c.1626
Pen and brown ink, with some white bodycolour.
90 x 150. The sheet torn into three sections and rejoined with 5mm overlaps.
A documentary drawing, related to the painting in Moscow.
USA Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum (inv. 83.GA.264)
Further literature/remarks: Malibu, 1988, no. 113, repr.; Royalton-Kisch and Schatborn, 2011, no.1, repr. fig.77 (documentary drawing); Exh. New York, 2016, p.64, n.29 (Bevers suspects the attribution and the connection with the painting may be wrong; compares Lievens, as in the Head of a Woman in Profile from the Abrams collection, Sumowski 1639x; Exh. Greenwich, 2011, no.15).
Provenance: sale, Amsterdam, Christie's, 16 November, 1981, lot 32;[1] art market, Boston, where acquired by present repository.

[1] At the sale the drawing was given to Rembrandt by Sumowski and to Jan Lievens by Schatborn.

Rembrandt Moscow Christ and Money Changers

COMPARATIVE illustration
Rembrandt: Christ and the Money-Changers 1626
Oil on panel, 431 x 320mm
R Moscow, Pushkin Museum (inv.1900)

COMPARATIVE illustration
Rembrandt, The Baptism of the Eunuch (detail) 1626
NL Utrecht, Museum Het Catharijneconvent

Not Ben van Eeghen Old Man

Not in Benesch
Bust of an Old Man, turned to left c.1626
Red chalk with black chalk on paper prepared with pale yellow wash.
137 x 116 (added patch lower right)
Although most commentators maintain an attribution to Jan Lievens, the drawing style has always seemed incompatible to my eye with the signed Lievens Head of a Young, Bearded Man in the British Museum (see right, and London, 2010 [online], no.2, as Jan Lievens). The attribution to Rembrandt seems consistent if the Horse lying down in the British Museum is accepted as Rembrandt, as the two works appear to be by the same hand (see London, 2010 (online) no.73 (as "attributed to Rembrandt"). Further support for the attribution, as an early drawing, is provided by the relationship between the drawing and the X-radiograph image of the figure underneath the paint surface of the Bust of a Man in Gorget and Cap of c.1626-29 (see Corpus, I, 1982, p.125, fig.2). Very early - as well as very late - works are often the most contentious in any catalogue raisonné.
NL The Hague, Private Collection
Further literature/remarks: Bauch, 1960, pp.176-77, repr. fig.161 (by Rembrandt); Exh. Amsterdam and Washington, 1981-82, p.50, repr. fig.1; Exh. Amsterdam, 1988-89, no.12, repr. (as Lievens); Royalton-Kisch, 1990, p.134; Royalton-Kisch, 1991.III, pp.413-14, repr. fig.5; Exh. Leiden, 1991-92, p.66, repr. fig.20; Exh. Kassel-Amsterdam, 2001-2002, pp.176-77, no.18 (Lievens); Exh. Washington-Milwaukee-Amsterdam, 2008-2009, under no.95, n.5; Royalton-Kisch, 2009, pp.509-10, repr. fig.2 (attributed to Rembrandt); Exh. Los Angeles, 2009-10, no.1.2, repr. and verso repr.fig.1c (Rembrandt, also attributed to Jan Lievens, arguing the case for Lievens, c.1629-30); London, 2010 (online), under no.73 (attributed to Rembrandt); Royalton-Kisch, 2011, p.99, repr. fig.25 (Rembrandt? c.1626-27); Seifert, 2011, p.229, repr. fig.252 (as Rembrandt or Jan Lievens; the verso especially close to Lastman and might even be Lastman's work)

Lievens BM

COMPARATIVE illustration:
Jan Lievens, Head of a Young, Bearded Man
(Not by the same hand as the drawing to the left)
London, British Museum

Not in Ben Van Eeghen old man verso

Not in Benesch, Detail of VERSO of the above
Rembrandt? Drapery Sketch c.1626
Red chalk on paper prepared with pale yellow wash.
116 x 137 ( measurements of the sheet turned as here; added patch upper left)
NL The Hague, Private Collection

Not Ben Seated old Rabbi Liberna 1628

Not in Benesch
Govert Flinck? Rembrandt?
Seated Old Man, half-length, to left
Red chalk with brown and grey wash, touched with white, monogrammed and dated 1628 (apparently very closely copied from a signature by Rembrandt, as detailed comparisons with Rembrandt's own monograms and dates reveal. The chalk is identical to the chalk in the drawing itself, which is of a slightly unusuall hue).
200 x 160.
Relates to a painting in Turin of 1631 by Jan Lievens (the attribution made by B. Schnackenburg; see Sumowski, Gemälde, no.1124, repr, as Salomon Koninck). The style of the drawing, which may be compared with Benesch 15, also of c.1628, is nevertheless unusual for Rembrandt and for Lievens, and were it not for the monogram, the drawing might not be included here. Compare for style the drawing by Govert Flinck of "Isaac Blessing Jacob" in Rotterdam, which has many points in common in the handling of the red chalk, not least in the peripheral shading.[1] The motif with drapery over the back of a chair resembles a drawing by Ferdinand Bol at Windsor (Sumowski 134*); also Benesch 266, Benesch 0293, and the drawing by Rembrandt of a Seated Old Man, of c.1637, illustrated on this webpage and from the Lugt Collection, Fondation Custodia, Paris.
COLLECTION: D Mettingen, Draiflessen Collection (formerly Hilversum, Liberna Collection)
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski, 1979 etc., no.1528 (Salomon Koninck, for his painting in Turin); Exh. Mettingen, 2012, no. 105, repr. (as Rembrandt, published by B. Schnackenburg); Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, under no.32, repr. fig. 32b (Rembrandt, follows Exh. Mettingen, 2012-13)
[1] Inv.R73, Sumowski 862, Rotterdam, 1988, no.71, repr..

Not in Benesch Old man seated in a chair to left full-length Christies 05072005

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt: An Old Man seated in a Chair, full-length, to left, c.1629-30
Black chalk. 148 x 111
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski 538** (as attributed to Gerrit Dou)
Provenance: Earl Spencer (L.1530); sold London, Christie's, 19 March, 1975, lot 102, as by Gerrit Dou (£750) and again 5 July, 2005, lot 140, as Rembrandt (£232,000).

Not in Benesch Raising of Cross MFA Boston

Not in Benesch
School of Rembrandt
Subject: The Raising of the Cross
Verso: Laid down
Medium: Pen and brown ink with brown and (later) grey wash.
Inscribed on the old mat, in graphite, below: “Crucifixion” and “Collection of the Rt. Hon R. Pole Carew”:
186 x 153.
COMMENTS: Compare Benesch 0006 recto. Although believed to be by Rembrandt by Haverkamp-Begemann (2005), the somewhat even and also caricatural style of the present sheet (note the legs of the figure hauling up the cross) suggests the drawing is a copy or variant after a lost Rembrandt sketch for his painting of the subject of 1633 in Munich, part of his Passion series for the Stadholder (Bredius 548; Corpus A69, Vol. VI, no.106).[1] The stylistic gulf between this and Benesch 0006 recto and Benesch 0009 verso is troubling.
Condition: Generally good; light foxing, mostly near the edges.
Summary attribution: Copy after Rembrandt
Date: after and original of c.1632-33?
COLLECTION: USA Boston, Museum of Fine Arts (inv.48.1110).
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Haverkamp-Begemann, 1961, p.19 (school drawing recording a 'lost stage' in the development of the painting in Munich); Munich, 1967, p.61; Corpus, II, 1986, under no.A69, repr. p.317, fig.6; Exh. Rotterdam, 1988, p. 36, repr. fig. b, under no. 2 (copy); Haverkamp-Begemann, 2005, pp.38-46, repr. fig.1 (pace ibid., 1961, the drawing an original sketch by Rembrandt of c.1628-29, when he was already occupied with the subject).
PROVENANCE: Pole Carew (see L.439 and 485); his sale, London, Wheatley’s, 13-15 May, 1835, lot 247, by Palser, £2-5s-0d; Andrew J. Elliot, Canada by whom presented to the present repository, 1948.
[1] For the series, see under Benesch 0382, n.4.

Not in Benesch Self Portrait Touched 1634 BN

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt*, Self-Portrait in a Soft Hat and Patterned Cloak, 1633-34 [the etched head 1631]
Etching, Bartsch 7, 4th state, touched in black chalk in 1633-34
144 x 99.
See the note to Benesch 57; like that sheet, this is a reworked impression of Rembrandt's etching 1631 (B. 7.IV), this time of the fourth state, with his age similarly adjusted.
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Exh. London, 1992, under no.8a, repr. fig.c; Broos, 1984.I, p.38 (adjusted inscription confirms year of Rembrandt's birth); London, 2010 (online), under no.7.I.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale (Réserve Cb-13 a boîte écu.)

Ben A020

Benesch A20 recto
Rembrandt??: Three Studies of an Archer, c.1633-34??
Pen and brown ink. Inscribed in pen and brown ink by a later hand, lower right: 'Rembrant'.
170 x 124 mm.
Related to Rembrandt's grisaille painting of St John the Baptist Preaching (Bredius 555, Corpus A106); but the style resembles Rembrandt at a later date, c.1640-45, so the drawing might be a derivation by a pupil - see further the verso, and compare for style Benesch 0094 and Benesch A34, which Sumowski (his no.2007**) ascribes to Nicolaes Maes. The inscription may be by the same hand as the one on Cottage with a White Paling, Benesch C41 (also illustrated on this page, and also aligned to the right) and Benesch 1233 (on the verso). It may be associated with the early collector's mark, here at the top right.
S Stockholm, Nationalmuseum (inv. A2/2004)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Berlin-Amsterdam, 1991-92, under no.7; Exh. Stockholm, 1992, no.135; Exh. Washington-Paris, 2016-17, p.166, repr. fig.9.

Benesch A20 verso

Benesch A20 verso
School of Rembrandt (Willem Drost?): Sketch of a Man, half length, to right, c.1652
Pen and brown ink
170 x 124 mm
The numbers may be in Rembrandt's handwriting (the '2' is entirely characteristic) but the style of the verso sketch resembles drawings by later pupils, including Willem Drost, and does not seem to be by Rembrandt at all. This undermines the status of the recto (q.v.).
S Stockholm, Nationalmuseum (inv. A2/2004)

Not Benesch St Peter DETAIL HEAD with Kevin Balacz final
Not Benesch DETAIL TOP LEFT St Peter with Kevin Balacz final

DETAILS, Enlarged, of the Head and the Drapery Sketch upper left

Not Benesch St Peter with Kevin Balacz final

Not in Benesch (original of Benesch 0124)
Subject: Study of a Prophet or Apostle (St Peter?)
Verso: Laid down on old card.
Medium: Pen and dark brown ink with brown wash.
Inscribed on verso of an old backing sheet, in a 17th-18th century hand, in pen and brown ink: “…[illegible] Rembrandt” [the ‘d’ not fully legible and now resembling an ‘e’]
210 x 130 (at highest and widest points); torn irregularly.
COMMENTS: The drawing, brought to my attention in November 2018, is clearly the original on which Benesch 0124 is based. The sheet is in poor condition, which hampers any assessment of it, but the marked fluency of line throughout indicates that it is not another copy. It is notable that the drapery study at the lower right of the copy, Benesch 0124, appears here at the top left.
Whether the drawing is by Rembrandt or not may prove contentious. Perhaps the fact that it was copied at all implies that it might be. In style it is reminiscent of works by Govert Flinck; yet the latter’s Rembrandtesque drawings generally have a more hesitant or fragmented style, less fluid and confident than the approach here (cf. Benesch 0061-62 and Benesch 0079-80, as well as his Musketeer in Copenhagen, Sumowski 953x and Benesch 0656). Furthermore, there are analogies with Rembrandt’s own works, especially with the documentary drawing of 1634 in the Burchard Grossmann album, Benesch 0257: the zigzag hatching to the right of the figure’s feet resembles that in the right background of Benesch 0257; similarly, the hatching in the figure's drapery is generally a close match between the two drawings (see the comparative detail illustrations, those from the newly discovered work on the left and and those from Benesch 0257 on the right). The effect of the shading is subtler and less harsh than the shading in Flinck’s drawings in Rembrandt’s manner (cf. Benesch 0002, Benesch 0048 and Benesch 0111-12). The hooked line around the back of the collar that runs over the nearer shoulder also resembles Rembrandt’s touch in the nearer sleeve of the Grossmann album drawing.
The latter also employs an unusual ‘blocking out’ of the facial features with bold touches of the pen, which is not unlike the approach in the present drawing, although in Benesch 0257 the light rakes across the face, highlighting the features clearly, whereas here the light comes from behind the head, casting the face as a whole into shadow. This dark chiaroscuro, with the face almost in darkness, is a bold experiment; and the similarly inky-black shadows in the shoulder and in the nearer, right sleeve also have their counterparts in Benesch 0257, in the nearer sleeve and in both edges of the collar. A comparable effect occurs in Benesch 0049. In the present drawing, the contrasts appear stronger - blotchier, even - perhaps because of the darkened overall condition of the paper as well as the use of a darker shade of ink. On close inspection, the artist has left some glimmer of light in the nearer eye, on the further brow, and in the tip of the nose (see the detail illustrated).
The drapery sketch at the top left should be compared with Rembrandt's collar in Benesch 0432, which exhibits a similar approach with untouched areas firmly 'closed' by strong and clkearb penlines (though the chiaroscuro is lessened here because of the drawing's condition).
In sum, the attribution of the present drawing to Rembrandt rather than Flinck appears to be more than adequately supported by the stylistic evidence.[1]
The sketch of drapery at the top left (see detail illustration) is not obviously connected with the same figure or composition. In the copy (Benesch 0124), shadow was added that alters the form. In the original, it seems as if drapery is hanging over a frame or support of some kind, with two deep triangles of shadow separated by a ‘strutt’, in the manner of a saddle, perhaps. The motif has a general resemblance to the collar on the left of the Self-Portrait, Benesch 0432, and to the drapery at the extreme right of Benesch 0154, although the medium there is oil.
For the iconography, the similarity of St Peter on the left in Benesch 0111 suggests that he may be represented. It is possible that, like Benesch 0124, Benesch 0111 may depend to some degree on a lost work by Rembrandt, who of course treated the subject in his etching of c.1629-30 (Bartsch 95; NH 15 – see under Benesch 0012).
Condition: Poor: as well as being torn and with internal tears, which contain concentrations of dirt, the sheet has been subjected to water and is greatly stained, grubby and discoloured. There are also folds and scrapes.
Summary attribution: Rembrandt.
Date: c.1634.
COLLECTION: USA, Private Collection.
PROVENANCE: From a ‘barn sale’ (‘vide-greniers’) in Plestin-Les-Grèves, Brittany, France, c.2016, where purchased by a dealer from Versailles; sold online by him (as “tmou6362”) on Ebay to the present owner, 24 September, 2018.
[1] I should stress that I have not seen the original drawing. In e-mail correspondence with the compiler concerning images of the drawing (15-18 November 2018), Peter Schatborn acknowledged that there were some good arguments for an attribution to Rembrandt but remained non-committal.
First posted 19 November 2018.

Ben 0257 Grossmann IMAGE ONLY

Fig.a Benesch 257 (the main part of the image only)

Not Benesch DETAIL Hatching on arm St Peter with Kevin Balacz final

Figs b-c
Details of drapery and hatching from:
On the left: Not in Benesch, Study of a Prophet or Apostle
On the right: from Benesch 257

Not Benesch DETAIL Hatching by Foot St Peter with Kevin Balacz final

Figs d and e.
Details of shading/hatching from:
Above: Not in Benesch, Study of a Prophet or Apostle
On the right: from Benesch 257
Note the spikey zigzags.

Ben 0257 Grossmann DETAIL of HATCHING on RIGHT
Ben 0124 better version TO USE

ENLARGED Illustration of the above

Not in Benesch
A Man in a Tall Hat Resting his Head on his Hand, almost half-length, with a long beard,
Verso: : Two Figures, One Reclining, the Other with a Knife (?)
Medium: Pen and brown ink; the verso in red chalk; ruled framing lines in a lighter brown ink.
Inscribed on verso, in pen and dark brown ink: “No....” ; on backing sheet, in pencil (a typical inscription for drawings in the Cavendish album): “Rembrandt”
104 x 90 . Watermark: none; chain lines: 28v
COMMENTS: The drawing on the recto, which iconographically belongs loosely to the melancholic scholar type,[1] is stylistically close to Rembrandt's work of c.1634-5 (compare especially Benesch 0327). The characterisation of a half-length figure on a small scale is comparable to Rembrandt's sketches in the 'Sheet of Studies' in Birmingham (Benesch 0340) and the similar drawing now in the Fogg Art Museum (Benesch 0339). The head may be compared with the 'Study of an Elder' in the Pierpont Morgan Library (Benesch 0336), a work of c.1633-34 and related to Rembrandt's 'St John the Baptist preaching' in Berlin. Yet the lines in the present work are considerably less fluent; the pen is handled throughout in a more tentative and fragmentary manner that cannot be paralleled in drawings that may be securely given to Rembrandt himself.
The subject of the sketch on the verso is uncertain,[2] but stylistically it provides similar cause for doubting Rembrandt's authorship. His own sketch in Washington of comparable figures, also in red chalk (Benesch 437 verso), exhibits greater incisiveness. The quality of draughtsmanship in the arms and legs further undermines an attribution to Rembrandt. Hitherto the figures have been regarded as reclining but it could be that the boy-like figure is being supported by another, with both figures upright.
In some respects the drawing is reminiscent of Govert Flinck (cf. Benesch 0079 and 0080) and it may be that he was the artist responsible.
A painting of a similar figure, probably by a Rembrandt pupil, was formerly in the Nicholson, Sedelmeyer and Schloss collections, bearing a Rembrandt signature and the date 1643.[3] In it, the figure wears a cap and casts his gaze towards the lower left of the composition.
Condition: Generally good; some surface dirt.
Summary attribution: School of Rembrandt – Govert Flinck??
Date: c.1634-35.
COLLECTION: GB London, British Museum (inv. 1952,0121.34 in Cavendish album, shelfmark 202.d.1)
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Chatsworth, 2002, III, p.400, no.1469, repr. (quoting the draft text of London, 2010); London, 2010 (online) no.116 (anonymous Rembrandt School, c.1634-35)
PROVENANCE: From an album (the 'Cavendish Album', folio 33) probably compiled by or for Lord James Cavendish (d.1741; he was the second son of the 2nd Duke of Devonshire, and may have been given the drawings in the album by him; some bear the mark of Nicolaes Anthonis Flinck, whose collection was purchased by the 2nd Duke in 1723/4);[4] presumably by descent at Chatsworth House, Derbyshire; the album believed to have been in the library of Charles Cavendish, 1st Lord Chesham; L. Colling-Mudge, from whom purchased for the British Museum in 1952, with the assistance of the National Art-Collections Fund.
[1] Many examples of this iconographic type appear in the work of Rembrandt and his circle, some of them discussed by Lütke Notarp, 1998, pp.217ff.
[2] Possibilities might include two Old Testament subjects, the 'Sacrifice of Isaac' (cf. Benesch 0090) or 'Jael and Sisera'.
[3] Bode and Hofstede de Groot, IV, no.506, repr.
[4] See L.959.
First posted 2 April 2018

Not in Benesch Scholar BM Cavendish album AN00521990_001_l
Not in Benesch Scholar BM Cavendish VERSO AN00521993_001_l


Not in Benesch Man preaching Recto Abrams
Not in Benesch Man preaching Verso Abrams

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? An Orator (Recto and Verso) c.1634-35
Pen and brown ink.
68 x 64.
The drawing is close to Rembrandt's sketches for his St John the Baptist preaching, such as Benesch 140, but the style is less energetic with an uncharacteristic tendency towards the decorative. The pose might have been inspired by Benesch 0142a.
USA Boston, Private Collection (Maida and George Abrams)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Greenwich (Conn.), 2011-12, no.5, repr. (Rembrandt).

Not in Benesch Head of Man to left ex Baskett and

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? Bust of a Man, Head Resting on his Hand c.1634-35?
Pen and brown ink.
62 x 54.
The analogies with Rembrandt's drawings for the grisaille of St John the Baptist are considerable (cf. Benesch 142 recto and 336), though the lines have a somewhat more decorative quality here. When sold in 1983 it was accepted by E. Haverkamp-Begemann and dated c.1633.
Sold Amsterdam, Christie's, 15 November, 1983, lot 37; Michael Currier; with Richard Day (dealer; catalogue Basket and Day, 1988, no.24, repr..

Benesch A025 Woman in Profile to Left Peck

Benesch A025
Rembrandt?? A Seated (African?) Woman, to left c.1635?
Pen and brown ink.
54 x 51.
Minor sketches of this type are especially hard to judge but I share Benesch's doubts concerning this drawing. Comparisons with the documentary drawings are not persuasive.
US Boston, Private Collection (Peck Collection)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Boston, 2003, no.2, repr. (Rembrandt, c.1635).

Not in Benesch Pregnant Woman to right Peck Coll

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? A Pregnant Woman, half length to right c.1635-40
Pen and brown ink.
66 x 43.
Not easy to assess; there seem to be hints of the liquidity of Rembrandt's style in the 1640s. The costume may be 16th century, in which case the drawing may copy a prototype from the circle of Dürer or Holbein rather than being from life.
USA Boston, Private Collection (Peck Collection)

Not in Benesch Holy Family Abrams

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? The Holy Family in the Carpenter's Workshop c.1635-38?
Pen and brown ink.
96 x 133.
The style, to my eye, links the drawing with Benesch 95. As discussed under that drawing, the attribution to Rembrandt is not very secure. Compare also the wrestling boys and, for the Virgin, the Pancake Woman, in Benesch 409. It also reminds me of HdG 807 (here Fig.a). Peter Schatborn (email to compiler, 15 December 2017) suggests a comparison with a drawing of card-players in the Peck collection (Not in Benesch). In the vertical striations of shading (perhaps for curtains) behind the Virgin, the diagonal shading behind her right leg and in the horizontal shading to the right of St Joseph's work-bench, there are some links with Benesch 0390.
USA Boston, Private Collection (Maida and George Abrams)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Greenwich (Conn.), 2011-12, no.4, repr. (Rembrandt, early 1640s or 1645); Giltaij, 2015, p.457, repr. fig.2 (follows the present publication when in an early form online [24 April 2015], comparing HdG 807 and suggesting Bol for both).

Not in Benesch COMP to Abrams Holy Family - Ferdinand Bol artist's studio

School of Rembrandt (Ferdinand Bol??)
An Artist in his Studio.
Pen and brown ink.
NL Amsterdam, Private Collection
Further literature/remarks: HdG 807.

Not in Benesch Peck Card Players

Not in Benesch
Subject: A Group of Card-Players and a Smoker
Medium: Pen and brown ink, rubbed with the finger; touches of later black ink in the hilt and point of the sword, right. Inscribed by a later hand in pen and brown ink, lower right: “Rembrandt”:
154 x 204. Watermark: none; chain lines: 24-25h.
COMMENTS: The drawing appears to be by the same hand as the Holy Family, now in the Abrams Collection (qv; Not in Benesch). The style is energetic and vigorous, and has links with Benesch 100 verso, for example; but the elongation of the central figure and some of the patches of hatching (e.g. in the calf of the smoker, where it tends to flatten the form) and a certain looseness in the modelling (especially in the same figure on the right) have given rise to doubts in the past. For these reasons the drawing is included here as “attributed to Rembrandt”, although it has to be said that parallels with drawings by Rembrandt’s pupils are hard to find – as with the Abrams drawing, the closest may be Ferdinand Bol. But the sheer vigour of the pemwork and the deftness of the characterisations all speak for Rembrandt himself.
For the subject (and to some degree, also the style) compare Benesch 0418B.[1]
Condition: Somewhat stained around the edges, otherwise generally good, although some of the lines have become paler – perhaps through a chemical reaction; some small retouches (see under Medium).
Summary attribution: Rembrandt [?]
Date: c.1635-40?
COLLECTION: USA, Chapel Hill, Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The Peck Collection (2017.1.63).
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Valentiner, II, 1934, no.768; Benesch, 1964, p.118 (Collected Writings, 1970, p.254); Exh. Cambrudge (Mass.), 1980, no.16; Exh. Cambridge (Mass.), 1983, n.p.; Exh. Boston, 2003, no.4, repr.. [Not in Schatborn, 2019.]
PROVENANCE: John Percival, 1st Earl of Egmont (1683-1748); R.P. Roupell (L.2234); his sale, London, Christie’s, 13 July, 1887, lot 1048; Victor Koch; Heinrich Eisenmann; Stefan Zweig; Alfred Zweig; his sale, New York, Sotheby Parke Bernet, 30 May, 1979, lot 80, where acquired by Sheldon and Leena Peck, Boston; presented by them to the present repository, 2017.
[1] The present catalogue entry is much indebted to Exh. Boston, 2003 (see Literature above). It is there recorded that Sumowski planned to describe the drawing as an anonymous school work (his no.2675).

Not in Benesch Uytenbogaert BM touched proof

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt*, Portrait of Johannes Uytenbogaert, 1635
Black chalk over etching and engraving.
250 x 187.
A 'documentary' drawing, although strictly speaking a touched proof of an etching: an impression of Rembrandt's etching (Bartsch 279,ii) reworked in black chalk by him to prepare the following states of the print.
GB London, British Museum (inv.1855,0414.271)
Further literature/remarks: Bartsch 279,ii; Exh. Amsterdam-London, 2000–2001, no. 26, repr; Royalton-Kisch and Schatborn, 2011, no.34, repr. fig.108 (documentary drawing).

Not in Benesch Braunschweig Dog_better image
Not in Benesch Braunschweig Dog_better image

Not in Benesch
Study of a Seated Dog
Black chalk; ruled framing line in pen and black ink. Inscribed above the drawing in pen on the old backing from a 1772 album (see below): “Roos” [Johann Melchior Roos]
82 x 99. Watermark: none.
COMMENTS: First published in 2016, with an attribution to Rembrandt, the drawing had traditionally been attributed to the German artist, Johann Melchior Roos (1663-1731) and kept in an album of his work.
Though a small sketch, it impresses through its many exceptional qualities: the firmness and confidence of the lines; the secure and compact pose and composition; the variety of touch, from the lightly sketched outlines on the dog’s back to the almost painterly dark patch on the crown of the head, with medium-tone shadows in between (e.g. the dog’s stomach and the shadow below); the successful description of details, from the eyes and nose to the spiked collar; and above all the animal’s characterisation, a sadly abused-looking creature, down-at-heel, laid low by wretched experience, hardly able to lift its head, and probably flea-bitten and wounded.
All these factors speak for Rembrandt himself as the draughtsman. The only problems with the attribution - apart from its odd provenance - arise if one attempts to date it or to compare it with the documentary drawings, of which the Vienna Elephant of 1637 is perhaps the closest in motif, style and technique (Benesch 0457). The Vienna drawing, though a work of greater ambition, does produce common qualities in its fluent and varying outlines and in the emphasis granted the feet – not enough, perhaps to secure the attribution and date but sufficiently analogous to give the dog a foothold in Rembrandt’s oeuvre. A perhaps surprising feature of the Seated Dog is its similarities to much earlier black chalk drawings by Rembrandt, so that he would barely look out of place had he accompanied the figures in Benesch 0012 or Benesch 0030-32, even on the same sheet. On balance and pro tem, I am inclined to agree with Döring noit only that the drawing is by Rembrandt but that it dates from around the middle of the 1630s. A comparison with the Kneeling Man from the Abrams collection (Benesch 0058) further supports this assessment to some degree.
Condition: apart from minor nicks to the upper left margin and a near-vertical scratch left of centre in the upper part of the sheet, apparently good (I know the drawing only through reproductions). The ink has run or smudged in the framing-line, lower right side.
Summary attribution: Rembrandt
Date: c.1635-37
COLLECTION: D Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum (inv.Z 719)
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Döring, 2016, pp.369-78, repr. fig.1 (Rembrandt, c.1635).
PROVENANCE: From an album (Sammelband 13, folio 29) of “German drawings” first assembled in 1772 and inventoried in 1785. It had been acquired for Karl I, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1713-1796), possibly from Lieutenant von Schauroth.
First posted 23 October 2016
©Photo Department of the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig

©Photo Department of the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig

Ben A018

Benesch A18
Rembrandt? The Slaughter of an Ox c.1635?
Pen and brown ink, rubbed with the finger and touched with white, on two conjoined pieces of paper; retouched by a later hand, especially below and in the right leg of the figure with the axe.
117 x 150
The zig-zag hatching (e.g. in the figure to the right) is very similar to Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (cf. Benesch 317, given to Eeckhout by Bevers, 2010, pp.60-61). Yet there are also links with Benesch 95.
D Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (inv.1441)
Further literature/remarks: Valentiner 763; Benesch A18; Munich, 1973, no.1109, repr. pl.305; Exh. Munich-Amsterdam, 2001-2002, no.31, repr. (Rembrandt, c.1635-40).

Ben A009

Benesch A009
Rembrandt?, Saskia seated by a Window c.1635-37
Pen and brown ink with brown wash with some black chalk; inscribed in graphite lower left: 'Rembrant'
164 x 125.
Possibly retouched here and there by a later hand (e.g. warmer ink in the parallel hatching of the shadows to right of the feet; the 'lines' on the open pages; and there is also some black chalk). For style compare Benesch 313.
H Budapest, Szépmüvézeti Múzeum (inv. 1582)
Further literature/remarks: Groningen, 1967, under no.57 (Rembrandt); Budapest, 2005, no.201, repr. (as Rembrandt, with further literature).

Not in Benesch A10

Benesch A010
Three Studies of a Child and a Profile Head of a Woman c.1636-39
Pen and brown ink with brown wash, heightened with white. Inscribed verso in graphite: 'from the collection of Thomas Dimsdale, 1758-1823/6/yox zx[subscript].
216 x 162. Chain lines 26v. Watermark: post horn in crowned shield.
COMMENTS: The drawing was strangely undervalued by Benesch but has been retained as by Rembrandt by most other writers. The top right head in profile may portray Margarethe de Geer (cf. Benesch 0757).[1] But the woman has also been identified as Aeltje Schouten, a godmother at Titus van Rijn's baptism in 1641, and the child as Antje van Loo, daughter of Saskia's former guardian, Gerrit van Loo.[2]
COLLECTION: USA Cambridge (Mass.), Fogg Art Museum (inv. 1949.4)
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: See the website for full details; Van Regteren Altena, 1955 (by Rembrandt); Hoetink, 1969, pp.150-51, repr. fig.1 (by Rembrandt and portrays M. de Geer); Broos, 2009, p.14, repr. fig.7 (child could be Antje van Loo and the old woman Aeltje Schouten); Alsteens, 2015, p.532, repr. fig.1; Robinson and Anderson, 2016, p.15 and cat. 69, pp.234-236, repr. p.235; watermark repr. p.380.
Provenance: Thomas Dimsdale (L.2426); Duveen; M.J Perry; Paul J Sachs.
[1] See Hoetink, 1969, pp.150-51.
[2] Broos, 2009, p.14.

Not in Benesch Getty Joseph tellling Dreams

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Sketch for Joseph Interpreting the Dreams of the Butler and Baker c.1638-39
Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink on paper prepared with brown wash.
200 x 187. On two conjoined pieces of paper.
COMMENTS: Closely related to the documentary drawing , Benesch 0423 verso, the recto of which is related to the etching of the Artist and his Model, of c.1639 (Bartsch 192; NH 176).
USA Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum (inv.95.GA.18)
Further literature/remarks: London, 1992, p.82, under no.27 (Rembrandt); Malibu, 2001, no.48, repr.; Exh. Los Angeles, 2009-2010, under no.7, repr. fig.7d (develops further the ideas in the London version, Benesch 423); London, 2010 (online) under no.24.

Not in Benesch Peck Man writing

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? Man Seated at a Desk Holding a Pen c.1635?
Pen and brown ink.
Watermark: none visible through backing.
64 x 74.
USA Boston, Private Collection (Sheldon and Leena Peck)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Boston, 2003, no.1, repr. (c.1632-33; perhaps a self-portrait).
PROVENANCE: Jonathan Richardson, sen. (L.2184); Joshua Reynolds (L.2364); William Esdaile (L.2617); Daigremont sale, Paris, Drouot, 3-7 April, 1866, lot 611; Ch. Rouillard; his sale, Paris, Drouot, 1-3 March, 1869, lot 454; Georges Danyau, Paris (L.720); sale, London, Christie's, 4 July, 1984, lot 130, repr..

Not in Benesch Doctor and Woman Christies 1989

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? A Doctor Attending a Woman, with a Standing Man c.1638-39?
Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink with brown wash and some later grey wash.
121 x 136.
One could imagine that this was a sketch made by Rembrandt around the time he included comparable motifs in his 1639 etching of the Death of the Virgin (Bartsch 99). The style resembles Rembrandt's iron-gall ink sketches of this period, albeit with some unusual weaknesses here, both in the general conception, the interrelationship of the figures and the details. Probably to be described as "attributed to Rembrandt".
Private Collection

Not Benesch or HdG Head of Oriental Exported Oct 2006

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Bust of a Youth in a Turban, to left c.1637-38
Pen and brown ink on paper prepared with brown wash
82 x 70
GB London, Art Market (Thomas Williams Fine Art)
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski, 1971, p.127, repr. fig.3 (Rembrandt).; Amsterdam, 1981, under no.15, repr. fig.b (compares Benesch 714 verso).

Not in Benesch King David and Retinue perhaps B&W

Not in Benesch
Gerbrand van den Eeckhout? King David and Retinue? c.1639
Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink, touched with brown wash and white bodycolour.
167 x 102; an added strip of the same paper down the left side.
Compare Benesch 74, by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout. Like that drawing, the style and techinique is especially close to Rembrandt's own in c.1637-39, warranting the drawing's inclusion in an "attributed to Rembrandt" section. The subject is uncertain.
Private Collection.

Ben A009_small

Benesch A003
Rembrandt, Saskia sitting by a window c.1638-39
Pen and wash in brown ink, brush in white on paper prepared light brown.
175 x 134. Chain lines: 22-24h. No watermark.
NL Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. RP-T-1930-51)
Provenance: T. Humphrey Ward; P. & D. Colnaghi Cornelis Hofstede de Groot; gift to the Riksmuseum, 1906, transferred, 1930.
Further literature/remarks: Amsterdam, 1985, no.14; Müller-Schirmer, 2008, p. 63.

Not in Benesch Paris De Bayser 2015 Portrait of a

Not in Benesch
Subject: Portrait of a Seated Elderly Man, wearing a broad-brimmed hat
Verso: laid down on a mat made of blue card (see Inscriptions below).
Medium: Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink with brown wash, heightened with white, on paper perhaps toned very pale brown. Ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink and in grey-brown ink. Inscribed on verso of mat in pen and brown ink (c.1810?): “paul Rembrant [underlined later in a paler brown ink] Van Ryn./ Ces deux Dessins ont orné/ les cabinets, Crozat, Noury / et en dernier lieu Celui / du president Audri, d’Orleans”; [1] and top left in graphite: “No.91.”
126 x 126. Watermark: none visible; chain lines: 24v (? not entirely clear as laid down).
COMMENTS: The composition is inspired by Raphael's Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, which Rembrandt saw in Amsterdam and copied in a drawing dated 1639 (Benesch 0451); the present drawing would probably date from around that year. The man portrayed probably came from the Jewish community in Amsterdam, as is suggested by the tassels (tzitziyot) attached to his clothing.[2] Perhaps the same person is represented in a pupil's drawing of this period (at the upper left of Benesch 0339A).
The drawing is remarkable for a number of reasons, not least because of its overall high quality, including the confident mise-en-page and the profound characterisation of the sitter, qualities that make the drawing stand apart from almost all the works of Rembrandt’s pupils. Yet the attribution to Rembrandt is not entirely straightforward, as some of its stylistic features are not commonly encountered in Rembrandt’s own work: the sleeves, for example, are drawn in separate geometric segments, one above the other, mostly with rather bold lines of even breadth. In the further sleeve (on spectator's left, the figure's right), the effect is almost cubistic. Rembrandt usually introduced greater variety into the thickness of his pen lines, especially his outlines. The white heightening, in the beard and below it as well as under the hat and in the nearer ear, is apparently employed somewhat casually.
The ‘geometric’ quality is, however, encountered to some degree in the above-mentioned Portrait of Castiglione (Benesch 0451), the attribution to Rembrandt of which has never been questioned, not least because it is covered in his handwriting. The folds cascade down Castiglione’s right arm in a comparable manner, though the effect is diminished by the thickly brushed lines on the main part of the body. The underlying, thinner pen lines in the body are also similar and split into pairs, probably by pressure exerted on the nib, an effect that also appears in the Seated Elderly Man. The way the facial features are drawn is much the same – the nose with its heavier touch near the nostrils, the eyes with their emphatic dots for the irises and pupils, the near-vertical, minuscule lines of hatching either side of the nearer eye, the small spots of ink and dashes that key in the lie of the surface – these are all analogous (for all these features cf. also the Ahasuerus on his Throne, Benesch 0085).[3] So, too, is the rather casual use of white bodycolour near Castiglione’s hands and behind his neck. Furthermore, the lower lip is suggested by a, for Rembrandt, entirely characteristic short horizontal dash. This and other features again occur in the documentary Portrait of a Woman (Maria Trip?), also probably of c.1639 (Benesch 0442; British Museum), which is related to Rembrandt’s painting of that year now on loan to the Rijksmuseum (see Corpus, III, 131 and VI, 184b): the delineation of the hair, the wedge-shaped hand and in the somewhat unspecific use of white heightening are all encountered again.
Further comparisons may be made with other generally accepted drawings, including the Youth Walking Carrying a Pole, now in the Rijksmuseum (not in Benesch; Amsterdam, 1985, no.13; inv.RP-T-1984-119). This again exhibits evenly-outlined geometric shapes, especially - but not only – in the trousers and down the figure's back, and a somewhat generalised application of white heightening. The uniform outlines also occur in a few other ink drawings of the period, such as the Study of Women with Children, now in a private collection (Peck Collection; Benesch 300), a work with other stylistic connections with the Seated Elderly Man, and there are also signs of the geometrical approach with broad outlines in the lower sketch of a Seated Beggar Woman, now in the Louvre (Benesch 0197).
Other comparisons are equally suggestive of Rembrandt’s authorship: the Sleeping Dog, also of c.1639 (Benesch 0455; Boston Museum of Fine Arts), includes shapes below that closely resemble the books under the hands of the Portrait of a Seated Elderly Man. The indefinite, slack pen and brush lines in the right background also resemble those seen here. The shadows at the back of the kennel almost conceal some parallel, horizontal lines that appear to have been drawn into the wet ink with a dry, sharp implement, to create a sense of refracted light as well as to hint at texture and perspective, and this series of striations resembles the technique of shading under the brim of the hat of the Portrait of a Seated Elderly Man.
It is certainly possible to compare the Seated Elderly Man with other drawings by Rembrandt that it resembles less closely than one might wish, such as the Portrait of Willem Ruyter, now in the Rijksmuseum (not in Benesch; inv. RP-T-1996-6); but there are nevertheless some similarities in, for example, the delineation of the facial features. But as described above, sufficient similarities exist even with two of Rembrandt’s documentary drawings to render the attribution of the Seated Elderly Man to Rembrandt highly likely. While this conclusion is not entirely straightforward, and one might wish for yet stronger stylistic connections, there are no works by his pupils that come nearly so close. Rembrandt’s work is not always 'predictable', as we know from drawings such as the Portrait of Burchard Grossmann (Royal Library, The Hague, Benesch 0257), which though signed and dated 1634, has such a unique stylistic character that it is practically never referred to as a point of comparison to sustain the attribution of other drawings to Rembrandt. If it had survived without its related inscriptions, its attribution would have proven contentious. But if Rembrandt can produce the stylistically unexpected in a signed drawing, there is no reason why he should not occasionally also do so in an unsigned work. As an art historian trained to focus on differences, it is extremely important to remember this fact and to understand that variations in style do not necessarily mean that different artists were responsible for a given work of art, the more so with such an experimental and inventive artist as Rembrandt. If the drawing is not by Rembrandt, then it would become hard to sustain the attribution to Rembrandt of some of the drawings mentioned above - the Rijksmuseum's Youth Walking Carrying a Pole and also Benesch 0300, which seems improbable as, like the Portrait of Castiglione mentioned above, it is inscribed by Rembrandt himself.
Condition: somewhat foxed, otherwise generally good. The acidic iron-gall ink has not 'bitten' into the paper significantly although the effect of the wash may be slightly flattened.
Summary attribution: Rembrandt
Date: c.1639

Not Benesch De Bayser Artcurial Verso of Mat

Verso of mat

COLLECTION: Paris Art Market (Artcurial) 2016
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: E. Davoust, Le comte de Bizemont, artiste-amateur orléanais, son œuvre et ses collections, Orléans, 1891, p.142, n°561; see also under Provenance, 2016.
PROVENANCE: Pierre Crozat (according to inscription on verso of mat);[4] Jean-Baptiste-François Nourri (1697-1784);[5] his sale, Paris, Folliot and Delalande, onzième vacation, 8 March, 1785, the second drawing in lot 771 (“Deux têtes, l’une de Philosophe coëffé d’un bonnet fourré, & tenant un livre à la main, l’autre un Vieillard à barbe, la tête coëffée d’un grand chapeau ; à la plume et lavé au bistre”) bt Tavernier with lot 772 (“Deux Paysages, l’un à la plume, enrichi de ruines & de plusieurs figures, et l’autre lavé au bistre”), 33 livres; François-Pascal Haudry (1718-1800; according to inscription on verso of mat; see n.1 below); Comte de Bizemont- Prunelé (1752-1837) [L.128; see under Literature above and n.1 below]; sale, Paris, Artcurial, 31 March, 2016, lot 10 (as “attributed to Rembrandt”, with statements by the compiler, supporting the attribution [based on an early version of the present text] and by Peter Schatborn, rejecting it) sold for 217,500 euros.
[1] The modern orthography would of course be ‘Audry’, as Matthieu Fournier of Artcurial, Paris, correctly surmised (oral communication 5 January 2016). But as "président Haudry", as discovered by Patrick de Bayser from a descendant of the Comte de Bizemont-Prunelé, Pierre de Bizemont, he is mentioned in the foreword by Luis Jarry to the book by Davoust noted under Literature above, p.VIII, as a collector who was closely linked with the Comte de Bizemont- Prunelé. Davoust himself on p.9 of his introduction emphasises this link (email to the compIler of 19 January 2016). Haudry is also mentioned with the dates 1718-1800 by G. Scherf, in T. Gaehtgens et al. (eds), L'art et les normes sociales au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 2001, p.160, as well as in a number of sale catalogues. An ‘Audry’ was a buyer at the Nourri sale which the present drawing passed through in 1785 (e.g. of lots 768 - a drawing by Rembrandt – 882 and 918). As “Président Audry” he is mentioned in Jean-Baptiste Pierre Lebrun, Galerie des peintres flamands, hollandais et allemands, Paris, 1792, pp.20 and 33, as an Orléans collector of note who owned a painting each by Jacob Jordaens and Pieter Van Mol; these turn up in the Cardinal Fesch sale catalogue, Rome, 1844, pp.108 and 157, in which Audry is mentioned as their former owner. The inscription might possibly have been written either by A.G.P. Bizemont or by his son, according to Pierre de Bizemont. I am grateful to Raphaëlle Drouhin of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Orléans for further information about Haudry. He was 'président du bureau des finances d’Orléans', hence his unusual title. For further information she points to M. L'abbé Desnoyers, Les Collectionneurs Orléanais, Orléans, 1880, especially pp.6-7; and E. Moinet and I. Klink Ballesteros, Le Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans, Paris, 2006, especially pp.25, 65 and 114.
[2] Peter Schatborn compared the clothes to those in an illustration of Jews at the end of the sixteenth century in Germany, in the Basel “Stammbuch” of 1612 (as illustrated in the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901 – I have not located the original source) [email to the present writer, 15 October 2015]. The figure on the right of the “Stammbuch” illustration closely resembles that in a print from the circle of Crispijn de Passe, undescribed in Hollstein, an impression of which is in the British Museum (1873,0614.101) and also the figure in the centre of a broadside of 1633 in the same institution (1873,0712.139). Tassels, as seen here, were commonly (and still are, in a different form) attached to Jewish prayer shawls. The broad-brimmed hat, however, is reminiscent of old quaker and parsons’ hats.
[3] Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inv.RP-T-1930-38. The underlying lines are much obscured by wash, but the face, including the ‘tramlines’ down the nose, is very close to the Seated Elderly Man. It is now usually dated c.1638-39 (see Amsterdam, 1985, no.10).
[4] One might have expected to see the number usually written in the lower right corner of Crozat’s drawings by P.J. Mariette, who catalogued them for the 1741 Crozat sale, but this might have been subsequently trimmed away. Crozat’s 391 Rembrandt drawings were said by Mariette, in the catalogue, to have mostly come from the collection of Roger de Piles, who had purchased them in the Netherlands. Unfortunmately the Crozat sale catalogue does not generally describe individual sheets. See further on Crozat’s Rembrandt drawings Schatborn, 1981, especially pp.41-46. See also n.5 below.
[5] Nourri was a major purchaser of drawings at the Crozat sale (see L. Bicart-Sée, ‘Some Archival References for Jean-Baptiste-François Nourri’, Master Drawings, xlv, 2007, pp.87-90).

* I am grateful to Patrick de Bayser and Matthieu Fournier for showing me the original drawing on 5th January 2016. As the drawing is soon to be sold I would like to reiterate here what I state on this site's Homepage: "This is a not-for-profit resource. All the opinions expressed are the compiler's own and offered freely and without prejudice. I do not accept payment for opinions, as to do so might undermine any validity they may have".

First posted 14 January 2015

Not in Benesch RPK Youth with Stick

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, A Youth Walking with a Pole, c.1638
Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink, touched with white heightening, on paper prepared with brown wash. 140 x 107. Watermark: fragment only visible: flail within a chaplet, similar to Churchill 544 (1640) and Voorn 26 (1641); chain lines: 23/24h.
COMMENTS: For the watermark, see Benesch 0226.
NL Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. RP-T-1984-119)
Further literature/remarks: Amsterdam, 1985, no.13, repr.; Schapelhouman, Rijksbull, 2001, pp.285-86, repr.; Exh. Amsterdam, 2006, p.54 (Possibly a black or a leper with warning stick); Royalton-Kisch, 2010 (online), under no.25, n.2; Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, no.33, repr. (Rembrandt; white bodycolour on the thigh; wrongly states that the figure appears in Bartsch 37, NH 167; compares Benesch 0242 in British Museum; the stick not straight).

Not in Benesch Munich Sledge iron gall

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? A Sledge on the Ice 1639?
Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink with (mostly later) brown wash on brownish paper.
168 x 196. Chain lines: 24v, with fine laid lines.
The drawing is sadly reworked, especially in the horse, and the signature is false; but the date it suggests, 1639, accords well with Rembrandt's own use of iron-gall ink, and the style melds seemlessly with Benesch 300. Compare also the Youth Walking with a Pole in the Rijksmusem (inv.RP-T-1984-119; not in Benesch).
D Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (inv. 1400)
Further literature/remarks: HdG 495; Munich, 1973, no.1133, repr. pl.318; Exh. Munich-Amsterdam, 2001-2002, no.28 (Rembrandt school, c.1640)

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? Man at a Window c.1638-39
Pen and brown (iron-gall) ink with brown wash and later grey wash, touched with red chalk, on paper prepared with brown wash.
116 x 116
The poor condition of the drawing, combined with the later grey wash, undermines the drawing's appeal, as does the unsatisfactory delineation of the juncture between the right shoulder and arm (for which compare the drawing of Willem Ruyter, also Not in Benesch). But the typical use of iron-gall ink on paper prepared brown for a drawing of the late 1630s, and the high quality of the rendering of the characterful face, make an attribution to Rembrandt likely, if somewhat insecure, although the incipient head at the lower right also looks typical for him. Sumowski's comparison with Bol's drawing of Minerva in Berlin (Sumowski 166x) is not entirely persuasive, as the structure and form is there (typically for Bol) less secure.
For the use of the tip of the brush at the top, cf., for example, Benesch 0339.
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski 167x (Ferdinand Bol, late 1630s; compares Minerva, Berlin, Sumowski 166x); Exh. Indiana, Notre Dame (Selections of [... Dutch Art from the Collection of Dr A.C.R. Dreesmann), 1982, no.17.
Provenance: Sale, London, Sotheby's, 21 March, 1973, lot 40 as Ferdinand Bol, purchased for Anton C.R. Dreesmann; his sale, London, Christie's, 11 April, 2002, lot 652 (as "attributed to Rembrandt") [£47,000]; New York art market, 2007; sale, London, Sotheby's, 4 July, 2007, lot 72; New York art Market (Collins), 2007; sale, New York, Christie's, 26 January, 2011, lot 281; sale, New York, Sotheby's, 29 January, 2014, lot 141 ($75,000).

Not in Benesch Cambrisde Mass Sketch of Woman Verso


Not Ben RPK Willem Ruyter

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Willem Ruyter as an Inn-Keeper c.1638-39
Pen and brown ink with brown wash, heightened with white, on paper prepared with brown wash
139 x 175.
A highly characteristic iron-gall ink drawing of c.1638-39. For the sitter, see under Benesch 0120. Compare Benesch 0235, which shows Ruyter again.
NL Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv.RP-T-1996-6)
Further literature/remarks: Burl Mag Acquisitions, 1996, repr. (c.1639); Schatborn and de Winkel, 1996 (shows Willem Ruyter (1587-1639) in a peasant role, as also in V&A sheet Benesch 0235, he also appears in Benesch 0120 in Chatsworth as St Augustine and in Benesch 0085 in the Rijksmuseum, the Oriental Prince; from memory he also appears in Benesch 0141; Ruyter was paid for the last time on 16 March 1639 and was buried on 22 April 1639); Exh. Melbourne-Canberra, 1997, p.329; Van Weele, 2001, pp.283-85; Chatsworth, 2002, III, under no.1463; Exh. Vienna, 2004, no.42; Exh. Amsterdam, 2006, pp.38-39; Exh. Los Angeles, 2009-2010, p.75; Broos, 2012, pp.76-78; Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, no.31, repr..

Not in Benesch Baltimore Wtenbogaert proof

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt*, Johannes Wtenbogaert 'The Goldweigher', 1639.
Counterproof of etching (Bartsch 281,i) touched with black chalk.
250 x 204.
Though strictly speaking a touched proof, this counts as a documentary drawing, the face being drawn in by Rembrandt in black chalk.
Baltimore, Baltimore Museum of Art, Garrett collection (inv. 1946.112.7730).
PROVENANCE: possibly Pieter de Haan sale, 1767, part of lot 503: 'Dezelve [The Goldweigher] met de afgemaakte Tronie, mede fray van druk, benevens de overdruk. N.B. Is nog met kleine Correctie door Rembrand zelve ingetekent...'; sale (N. Smith?), London, T. Philipe, 16 etc. March 1801, lot 276 (£3-3-0);[1] George Hibbert (L.2849); Abraham Hume (according to Buccleuch sale cat.); Duke of Buccleuch (L.402); his sale, London, Christie's, 19 April, 1887, lot 2022 ('A counterproof of the first state; the face is drawn upon. From the Hume and Hibbert Collections), £4.
Further literature/remarks: Middleton, 1887, pp.119-21; Ackley,1995, 25-27, repr.; Exh.Amsterdam-London, 2000–2001, under no.35, repr. fig. b; Royalton-Kisch and Schatborn, 2011, no.43, repr. fig.118 and 118a; Schatborn, 2019, p.403 (proof retouched to create the portrait from life).
[1] I am grateful to Paul Sternberg for this reference (e-mail 3/3/2015). For the catalogue, see:
(consulted 4/3/2015) .

Not in Benesch Baltimore Wtenbogaert proof DETAIL

Detail, Enlarged

Not in Benesch Munich Isaac blessing Jacon bl ch

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? Isaac blessing Jacob c.1641
Black chalk, heightened with white
182 x 126.
Compare Benesch 13.
D Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (inv. 1424)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Munich-Amsterdam, 2001-2002, no.54 (as Rembrandt).

Not Ben Lioness with Kaplan 2011

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Sketch of a Lioness, to left c.1640
Charcoal (?) and grey wash, heightened with white on brown prepared paper; ruled framing lines visible here and there in brown ink.
115 x 150.
Compare the drawings in the British Museum, Benesch 774-75.
USA New York, private collection (the Leiden Gallery)

Not in Benesch Munich 1641 Baptism

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? The Adoration of the Magi, 1641
Red chalk. Signed and dated below in the same red chalk: 'Rembrandt f 1641'
128 x 125.
This unusual drawing resembles in composition Rembrandt's etching of the Baptism of the Eunuch, also of 1641 (Bartsch 98; see also Benesch 13, now also thought to date from this period). It seems to be a rapidly-sketched demonstration of a pyramid design, affording an interesting insight into the practice of creating the overall balance of a composition. The elephant suggests that the subject is the Adoration of the Magi, as in Benesch 0382 verso (qv).
As with the Liberna drawing above, of 1628, the drawing's inclusion here is rendered mandatory by the apparently autograph signature and date,[1] but the attribution is likely to prove controversial.
D Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung (inv.1668)
Further literature/ remarks: Munich, 1973, no.1293, repr. pl.349 (Rembrandt school) .
[1] The only slightly unusual feature is the linkage of the 'm' to the 'b', yet this is also found in the signature on Benesch 815 of 1644. In every respect, whether from the point of view of the individual letters, their spacing and links/interruptions, there seems to be no reason to doubt its authenticity.

Ben A035a Satire

Benesch A035
Rembrandt, A Satire on Art Criticism 1644?
Pen and brown ink. Watermark: Strasburg Lily in a crowned shield. Inscribed, recto, in pen and brown ink by Rembrandt, on the fictive painting, below (the inscription at the top of it being illegible but veering towards 'zou y haest / bewerden'): 'Houdloos'[followed by another word, perhaps also ending...oos, but covered in bodycolour] / windt dat" [?] (hatless gains it?); and to the left: "dees […episcope? crossed out] van de kunst / is jootich [?] gunst" [?] (this [bishop? guardian?]...of [the] art is [...??] favour); and below: "den tijt 1644"; by another hand, in pen and brown ink, lower left: 'Rembrant.'.
156 x 200
The inscriptions, though frustratingly difficult to read, are in Rembrandt's handwriting (apart from his name, lower left) and the general consensus is now in disagreement with Benesch's doubts about the drawing. Compare the handwriting of the date on the drawing with that written on the Landscape of the same year in the same collection, Benesch 815.
The iconography, while clearly a satire on critics of art, and based on the Calumny of Apelles by Mantegna, has eluded a definitive interpretation.
USA New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art (Lehman collection, inv.1975.I.799)
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Benesch, IV, 1955/73, no.A35, repr. ('attrib. to Rembrandt'); Emmens, 1964/1968, pp.150-54 and 101, repr. fig.28; Schwartz, 1985, p.228; Van de Wetering, 1995 (c.1644); New York, 1999, no.70, repr.; Exh. Greenwich (Conn.), 2005, p.11, repr.; Schatborn and Dudok van Heel, 2011, p.350, no.X, repr. fig.160 (inscribed by Rembrandt); Crenshaw, 2013, passim, repr. fig.1 (1644, responding to publication of C. Huyghens's epithets concerning Rembrandt's portrait of Jacques de Gheyn III in his 'Momenta Desultoria',1644, Epigram. Lib.I, pp.81-82; sees portrait of Huygens in the seated figure [which I do not]); Exh. Paris, 2017, p.14, repr. fig.3 (defecating figure shows up the moral and social superiority of the élites).

Not In Benesch
Rembrandt?? Studio with a Couple Having their Portrait Painted c.1645?
Pen and brown ink with brown wash.
175 x 232.
Analogies with drawings such as the signed Star of the Kings (Benesch 736) and the Allegory of Art Criticism (Benesch A35a) as well as Benesch 670 make it necessary to include this controversial drawing in our 'attributed' section. In some areas, especially to the right, the penwork appears stilted, as if it had been partly added or strengthened by a later hand (see F. Lugt in Paris, 1933) and the wash is also uncharacteristic for Rembrandt. A sketchier version of the scene is in Munich (inv.1509; Sumowski 1132a*, also as Van Hoogstraten) and three copies are known.[1]
F. Paris, Musée du Louvre (inv. RF 690; L.1886a).
Further literature/remarks: Paris, 1933, no.1181, repr. pl.45 (see above; left section possibly Rembrandt); Sumowski, 1979 etc., no.1167a* (attributed to Samuel van Hoogstraten); Exh. Paris, 1988-89, no.107, repr. (as Sumowski); Exh. Munich-Amsterdam, 2001-2, pp.59-60, under no.2; London, 2010 (online) under no.89 (Rembrandt?); Exh. Paris, 2017, no.16, repr. (S. van Hoogstraten).
Provenance: A.C.H. His de la Salle (L.1333), by whom presented to the present repository in 1878.

[1] One other also in the Louvre (inv. RF 4750; Paris, 1933, no.1321, repr. Sumowski, 1979, etc., V, p.2850, fig.75c); one in the British Museum (inv. 1860,0616.128; London, 2010 (online), no.89) and the third in Copenhagen (inv.Tu 82c, no.9 / 6649; repr. Sumowski, 1979, etc., V, p.2848, fig. 75a.)

Not in Benesch Paris Louvre Interior of Studio
Benesch A059A Albertina Child

Benesch A059a
Rembrandt, A Sleeping Child, c.1645-49
Black chalk.
93 x 92
A Vienna, Albertina, (inv. 8851)
Further literature/remarks: HdG 1450; Benesch,IV, 1957/73, no.A59A, repr.; Robinson, 1998, pp.39-40, repr. fig.6.

Not in Benesch
Not Rembrandt? Half-Length Sketch of a Man, perhaps playng cards
Black chalk
127 x 102
USA New York, Private Collection ('The Leiden Collection')
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski, 1971, p.132, repr. fig.9 (Rembrandt); Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, under no.37, repr. fig.37a (Rembrandt, c.1648; ; shows same man as Amsterdam private collection version; model as in paintings of head of Christ, dated in Exh. Paris-Philadelphia-Detroit, 2011-12, 1648 and 1656); Peter Schatborn, "Seated Man, Half-Length, at Work", (RR-106), in The Leiden Collection Catalogue, Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., Ed., New York, 2017 (Rembrandt).
Provenance: J.P. Heseltine, London, 1910 (as by Gerard ter Borch); sale, New York, Christie’s, 10 January 1990, lot 182, as attributed to Rembrandt; sale, New York, Christie's, 24 January, 2008, lot 144 as Rembrandt, bt O. Naumann (dealer) from whom acquired by the present owner.

Not in Benesch Man Half Length bl chalk Kaplan_1
Not in Benesch Seated Man full length bl chalk

Not in Benesch
Not Rembrandt? Full-Length Sketch of a Man, perhaps playing cards or stuffing his pipe
Black chalk; ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink, on thin paper.
135 x 96. Watermark: fragment, the tip of a crescent and small cross. Chain lines 20/24/33v.
Small repair lower left
NL Amsterdam, Private Collection
Provenance: private collection, France; sale, London, Christie's, July 2003 lot 100, bt Habolt.
Further Literature/Remarks: Exh. Paris-Philadephia-Detroit, 2011-12, p.242, no.33, p.126; Schatborn, 2012 Habolt, no.39, repr.; Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, no.37, repr. (Rembrandt c.1648; shows same man as New York 'Leiden Gallery' version; model as in paintings of head of Christ, which are dated in Exh. Paris-Philadephia-Detroit, 2011-12, between 1648 and 1656).

Not Ben PC F Schwed Crying Boy

Not in Benesch
Not Rembrandt (Carel Fabritius?) A Crying Boy c.1645?
Black chalk.
238 x 171
The drawing was first shown to me in late 2009, and comparisons with Rembrandt's many black chalk drawings soon convinced me that this must be a pupil's work (an assessment with which Peter Schatborn agreed soon afterwards). In a lecture at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Feb. 2010, I argued that the drawing (a) cannot be by Rembrandt (b) is apparently by the same artist as the two drawings of seated men (New York 'Leiden Gallery' and Private Collection, Amsterdam) illustrated here, and (c) that the artist might be Carel Fabritius. The hands in this and the New York drawing resemble those in the relief in Fabritius's painting of a Sentry, which Schatborn (beginning in Amsterdam, 1985) has righty seen as providing a possible clue to Fabritius's drawing style.

F Private Collection

Not Benesch Seated Woman with a Child with Sotheby

Not in Benesch
Attributed to Rembrandt (Rembrandt?)
A Figure Seated in a Chair, with a Child, c.1647-52
Black chalk. 88 x 92
This drawing appeared in 2005. Its extreme faintness and slightness make a definitive opinion difficult to form. The draughtsmanship closely resembles the Blind Beggar with a Boy and Dog (illustrated below on this page). The initially oddly shaped further (right) arm of the seated figure is configured like the hind leg of the dog! This was subsequently 'corrected' with a straight, darker line which, along with the straight, darker line in the other arm, seems to have been drawn with a ruler, and thus to be a later addition. A few other touches are also in this darker toned chalk (by the nearer hand and the child's left hand). On balance it seems reasonable to accept the drawing under the ‘Attributed to’ rubric – there are links with Benesch 0717-0718 in London and with Benesch 0743 and 0746 in Munich, which are, however, not always accepted in the modern literature. Compare also the Woman Bending over a Child by a Chair also illustrated on this page, further below.
PROVENANCE: sale, Paris, Christie’s, 16 December, 2005, lot 201, as ‘Attributed to Rembrandt’; sale, Sotheby’s, New York, 28 January, 2016, lot 235, 'Attributed to Rembandt', sold for $17,500.

Not Ben Beggar Dog Boy after removal of stain
Not in Benesch Berlin Copy of Beggar Man Boy and D

COMPARATIVE Illustration
The Berlin Copy
Black chalk on oriiental paper
127 x 78.

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Blind Beggar with a Boy and a Dog, c.1647
Black chalk; inscribed in pen and brown ink, lower right
(eighteenth century?): 'rembrant'; verso: 'c..3.D.L7 / no.2 HVIII'
131 x 84. Chain lines 22v. No watermark.
The original of a drawing in Berlin (inv.KdZ.5790) that was
published as by Rembrandt until this version reappeared at Christie's, London, from a Scottish private collection, in 2012.[1] Condition: when sold, the drawing had a circular coffee-cup stain, traces of which are still visible.
Private Collection, Los Angeles (London, Christie's, 3 July, 2012, lot 50 [£121,250]).
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, pp.21-2, repr. fig.18 (the copy in Berlin repr. fig.17) and nos 38 (Rembrandt, c.1647; relates to Benesch 0749 recto) and 39 (Berlin copy), both repr. [the Berlin version published by Robinson, 1998, p.40; Berlin, 2006, no.31 (as somewhat doubtful); Exh. Paris and Amsterdam, 2007, no.31; The Present Catalogue , 2013 (copy)]; Berlin, 2018, no.2, repr. (original of copy in Berlin).
Provenance: pseudo Crozat (L.474); probably General Auguste-Charles-Joseph de Flahaut de La Billarderie (1785-1870) and his wife Margaret Mercer Elphinstone (1788-1867); by descent. Scotland, private collection;
[1] The Berlin sheet was accepted in HdG 148, catalogued as 'uncertain' in Berlin, 1930, p.235, inv.5790 and omitted by Benesch; but accepted by Schatborn in Amsterdam, 1985, p.65, n.5, Robinson, 1998, p.40, repr. fig.8, and, with hesitation, by Bevers in Berlin, 2006, no.31, repr.. Also in Exh. Paris and Amsterdam, 2007, no.31. My own notes reveal (mercifully!) that I had always questioned the Berlin drawing since first seeing it in 1987. But the idea that a copyist would trouble to make such an exact replica of such a minor sketch still surprises me.

Not Benesch Two Men conversing Berlin recto

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Recto: Two Men Seated in Conversation, c.1647
Verso: Three Sketches of the Heads of Men wearing Hats, c.1647
Black chalk.
118 x 98.
Berlin, Staatliche Museen Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (inv. KdZ.1148)
Further Literature/Remarks: Robinson, 1998, p.40; Berlin, 2006, no.32, repr.; Exh. Paris, 2007 [Berlin dgs], no.32; Exh. Amsterdam, 2007 [Berlin dgs], no.32; Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, no.36, repr. (Probably shows Ashkenazy jews); Royalton-Kisch, 2015, pp.452-53, repr figs 3 and 4 (1640s).

Not Benesch Two Men conversing Berlin Verso


Not Benesch recto With T Williams 2013
Not Benesch verso With T Williams 2013

Not in Benesch
Subject: Three Standing Men in Conversation
Verso: Two Figures in Greeting, one raising his hat (The Return of the Prodigal Son?)
Medium: Black chalk, with later brown wash; ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink. Inscribed lower right in pen and brown ink by a later hand: “siet d’ander s[…] / Van Rembran[t?]”
153 x 118. WM: uncertain (probably none); chain lines: 25v; 16 laid lines /cm.
COMMENTS: Previously unpublished before its inclusion here (on 27 March 2014), the drawing is not easy to judge because of the later wash and the generally worn condition. In style it seems inseparable from the Berlin drawing KdZ.1148, recto and verso, which is also not in Benesch (see above) and like that drawing belongs with Rembrandt’s many black chalk studies of the later 1640s.
The composition of the verso could have been intended to represent the Return of the Prodigal Son (cf., in very general terms, Rembrandt’s celebrated late painting of c.1666-1669 in St Petersburg, Bredius 598, Corpus 320 [as 1660-65]).
Summary attribution: Rembrandt?[1]
Date: 1648-50?
COLLECTION: London art market (2013-14)
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Royalton-Kisch, 2015, passim, repr. figs.2-3 (late 1640s).
PROVENANCE: Delius Gallery (F. Delius Giese), New York, 1931;[2] Victor Koch, Vienna; his sale, London, Sotheby's, 29 June, 1949, lot 95 (as Rembrandt), bt Clifford Duits; thence by descent.
[1] In an e-mail to the compiler of 27 April 2014, Peter Schatborn stated that he now also agrees with the attribution of this drawing to Rembrandt, which had previously troubled him.
[2] I am grateful to Erik Löffler, who added this New York provenance item from the photographic documentation in the Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (e-mail to the compiler, 4 March 2016).
First posted 27 March 2014


Not in Benesch RPK Four Men

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? Four Standing Men Wearing Hats c.1647-52
Black chalk with some white heightening on thin paper; framing lines in pen and light brown ink and over them in grey ink.
153 x 103.
To be compared with the drawings grouped around the Crying Boy, above.
NL Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. RP-T-1930-55)
Further literature/remarks: Amsterdam, 1985, no.28, repr.; Robinson, 1998, p.37, repr. fig.1; Robinson, 2000, p.303; Exh. Amsterdam, 2006, p.56; Exh. Paris, 2007, under no.118; Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, no.35, repr. (Ten Kate inv. refers to the drawing as a Soldier with three ‘Smousen’, ie Ashkenazy jews; in Zomer’s collection, portfolio Q, no.38 these types of drawings were described in an album; relates to Amsterdam Museum Benesch 0749 recto of core group, to date c.1647; copy in Bayonne, inv. NI 1462 (1475), here fig.35a)

Not in Benesch Old Woman with Stick Albertina HdG 1447

Not in Benesch
An Old Woman with a Stick c.1647
Black chalk.
120 x 74
A Vienna, Albertina (inv. 8840)
Further literature/remarks: HdG 1447; Robinson, 1998, p.38, repr. fig.2.

Not in Benesch Old Man in Soft Hat with Stick Albertina HdG 1439

Not in Benesch (HdG 1439)
Rembrandt, A Standing Old Man with a Soft Hat and a Stick c.1647
Black chalk.
78 x 48
A Vienna, Albertina (inv. 8842)
Further literature/remarks: HdG 1439; Haverkamp-Begemann, 1961, p.14 (Rembrandt); Robinson, 1998, pp.38-40, repr. fig.4 (Rembrandt).

Not in Benesch Bearded Man in High Hat Albertina HdG 1438

Not in Benesch
Bearded Man in a High Hat with a Stick, c.1647
Black chalk.
81 x 40.
A Vienna, Albertina (inv. 8843)
Further literature/remarks: HdG 1438; Haverkamp-Begemann, 1961, p.14 (Rembrandt); Sumowski, 1971, pp.127 and 129, repr. fig.5; Robinson, 1998, p.40, repr. fig.5 (Rembrandt).

Not in Benesch Group of Jews in Discussion with Le Claire 1998

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? A Group of Jews in Discussion c.1647?
Black chalk.
95 x 141.
From the Lawrence and Esdaile collections. Though a minor, thumbnail sketch, the style accords with drawings such as Benesch 595 (with a similar seated figure), 671-72, 714, 717, 720 and 725
Private Collection.

Not in Benesch strollingcouple Christies 2011

Not in Benesch
An Old Peasant Couple Walking, full-length, to right c.1647
Black chalk.
137 x 95.
The discovery of the Blind Beggar with Boy and Dog (see above) makes the attribution of the present drawing uncertain: it resembles in style and quality the copy of that drawing in Berlin, also reproduced here (see also Berlin, 2006, no.31, repr.). All the hands, for example, seem deficient, the simplified nearer hand being especially similar to those of the main figure in the Berlin drawing. Yet the hatching seems more fluent than the outlines, which resemble those of the drawings in the Crying Boy group discussed above. Even allowing for the indifferent condition of the sheet, the drawing seems problematic enough to merit two question marks.
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Vosmaer, 1887, p.600; Robinson, 2000, pp.303-4, repr. fig.2; Exh. London-Paris-Cambridge, 2002–3, p.120, repr. fig.2.
PROVENANCE: C. Ploos van Amstel (cf. L. 3002-3004), with his inscription 'Rembrandt f. b 5 1/2 1 3½' (verso); Jacob de Vos Jbsz.; his sale, Amsterdam, Roos, Frederick Muller & Co., 22-24 May, 1883, lot 416; possibly K.E. Maison, Berlin, 1931; Dr Arthur Feldmann, Brno; His (anonymous) sale, Gilhofer & Ranschburg, Lausanne, 28 June 1934, lot 226 (unsold); Victor and Hilda Haida, New York, before 1938, and by descent; their sale, New York, Christie's, 26 January, 2011, lot 283, sold for $458,500.

Not in Benesch DETAIL Old Couple at Christies Jan

Detail of the adjacent illustration

Not in Benesch BM Thee orientals

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Three Orientals in Discussion c.1647-52
Black chalk, touched with white; ruled framing lines in pen and black ink.
182 x 150
GB London, British Museum (inv. 1986,1213.2)
Further Literature: London, 2010 (online), no.44, repr..

Not in Benesch Mother and Child by a Chair with PR Amsterdam 2019

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, A Woman Bending over a Child by a Chair c.1647-52?
Black chalk on oriental paper; ruled framing lines in pen and dark
brown ink.
Known to Sumowski only from a photograph in the RKD, the drawing resurfaced in 2012 and seems to be genuine.
80 x 70
NL Amsterdam, Private Collection
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski, 1971, p.129, repr. fig.6.

Not in Benesch Sotheby NYC 2008 Holy Family in Int

Not in Benesch
School of Rembrandt, The Holy Family in an Interior c.1660?
Pen and brown ink with brown wash; ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink.
112 x 147.
Included here as an example of the difficulty some drawings can produce: the head of Joseph looks like Rembrandt (cf. Benesch 885, 1064) and the shadow cast on the wall described in wash is highly effective; yet the remainder of the drawing speaks loudly for a school work of the later period - compare works ascribed (or that might be ascribed) to Willem Drost, like Benesch 1028 and the Standing Man (Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Sumowski 1977*; Schatborn, 1985, p.103, repr. fig.22).[1]
Sold New York, Sotheby's, 23 January, 2008, lot 170 ($16,250)
Further literature/remarks: Valentiner 327.
[1] The latter comparison noted in the Sotheby's catalogue.

Ben A105a Met Entombment after Mantegna

Benesch A 105A
Rembrandt?? The Entombment of Christ, after Mantegna
Pen and brown ink over red chalk, with brown and grey wash, heightened with white.
262 x 389; on three pieces of paper (the main rectangular section, the arched top, the left part of which is again separate; the upper right section may be oriental paper). No watermark visible.
The attribution was not fully accepted by Benesch and in general Rembrandt's authorship seems unlikely from a stylistic point of view. His copies are usually more vigorous and varied in touch. The combination of media is also unusual. The differences between this and Mantegna's engraving suggest that the present drawing may have been based on a lost preparatory drawing for it by Mantegna (which Rembrandt may well have owned - the inventory of his possessions of 1656 lists a book or album of works by Mantegna).
USA New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art (inv.1972.118.285), bequest of Walter C. Baker.
Further literature/remarks: Benesch, VI, no.A105a, repr.; Mules, 1985, pp.16-17; Royalton-Kisch and Ekserdjian, 2000, pp.52-56, repr. fig.1; (associate of Rembrandt); Exh. Glasgow, 2012, p.93, repr. fig.54 and cat. no.25.

Not in Benesch P Lugt Woman stealing

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt? A Woman Stealing from a Drunken Man's Pocket c.1652-58?
Pen and brown ink, heightened with white bodycolour; ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink.
101 x 136.
Rather more loosely handled than usual for Rembrandt; nonetheless there are analogies with his works of the 1650s (e.g. Benesch 860). However, some caution is required for lack of analogies with Rembrandt's documentary drawings, and the handling resembles that of drawings ascribed to Willem Drost.
F Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection F. Lugt (5993)
Further literature/remarks: Lippmann, IV, 50B; Valentiner 774; Paris, 2010, no.19, repr. (Rembrandt; with further literature); Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, under no.7, repr. fig.7a (Rembrandt, at time Drost was a pupil; hatching subordinated to composition, which is not usually the case with Drost).

Not in Benesch Compiegne COMP ill of etching

COMPARATIVE illustration
Rembrandt, The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1655
Etching, Bartsch 35, counterproof (to show the composition in the same direction as the drawing in Compiègne)
157 x 131
GB London, British Museum (inv.1843,0513.241)

Not Benesch USA San Francisco Oriental

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? Medallion Portrait of an Indian Nobleman, possibly Muhammad Adil Shah of Bijapur (after a Mughal miniature) c.1656-1661
Pen and brown ink on oriental paper.
97 x 76.
As stated in my British Museum catalogue (London, 2010 [online]), I am far from convinced that the series of drawings after Mughal miniatures is by Rembrandt. An attribution to Aert de Gelder, who had a special interest in oriental costumes, seems more convincing (compare Sumowski 1052, inspired by these miniatures, as well as many of his painted and drawn compositions; De Gelder's drawing of the Last Supper after Leonardo, now in Berlin, seems especially close, e.g. to Benesch 1188 and Benesch 1192).[2]
USA San Francisco, De Young/Legion of Honor Fine Art Museums of San Francisco, Achenbach Collection (inv.2000.70).
Further literature/remarks: Robinson, 1988, p.585, repr. fig.4a; Exh. London, 1992, under cat. no.65, fig.65a; Exh. 1998, San Francisco, Interaction of Cultures: Indian and Western Painting 1780-1910, The Ehrenfeld Collection, 1998, no. 10; Exh. 2007, San Francisco, Rembrandt to Thiebaud, A Decade of Collecting Works on Paper, 2007, p. 15; London, 2010 (online), under no.56, n.10; Exh. San Francisco, 2013, de Young, Rembrandt's Century, January 26 - June 2, 2013.
Provenance: Jonathan Richardson, senior (L.2184); his sale, London, Cock's, 18th night, 11 February 1747 (1746 old style), part of lot 70, 'a book of Indian drawings by Rembrandt 25 in number'; Sir Joshua Reynolds (L.2364); anonymous French collection, sold Paris, Drouot, 24 April 1984, lot 6, repr.; Mrs. Christian Aall, New York; Dr. William K. Ehrenfeld, Marin; purchased by the present repository in 2000, Dorothy Spreckels Munn Bequest Fund and Partial Gift of Dr. William K. Ehrenfeld.
[1] I am grateful to William W. Robinson for referring me to the De Young/Legion of Honor collection and their website at: (consulted 20 May 2014).
[2] Berlin inv. KdZ 1369, Berlin, 1918, no.85, repr..

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? Two Heads of Women after Indian
/ Mughal models c.1656-62?
Verso: laid down on Richardson mat
Pen and brown ink with brown wash on Japanese
paper; no framing lines. Inscribed on front of mat,
in pen: "Rembrandt" and in graphite: "Colln. E.
Utterson" and on verso of mat in pen and brown
ink: "10." and "this is one of those which a / called
Rembrants Indian figur" (cut - mat must have been
a little larger); in graphite: "Bt at Cosways (RA)
Sale"; and "true/ A. Pond"
70 x 94
A slight but pretty - and not entirely typical -
example of the copies after oriental miniatures
(on which see further above). of the series, it is one of the least convincingly attributed to Rembrandt.
Condition: good, though a fragment and not fresh; slightly rubbed and spotted.
F Paris, Private Collection
Provenance: Jonathan Richardson, sen. (L.2184); Richard Cosway; E. Utterson; Anonymous collector (19th? century; blindstamp 'NB' lower on drawing, not in Lugt); Anonymous collector (19th? century; stamped 'C.B.' in a rectangle in blue, on the back of the Richardson mat; not in Lugt); Mme F. Lepage.
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Paris-Antwerp-London-New York, 1979-80, under no.75; London, 2010 (online), under no.56, n.10; Exh. Los Angeles, 2018, repr. pl. 41.

Not in Ben Two Women Indian PC Paris ex Pubhist


Not in Ben Two Women Indian PC Paris ex Pubhist
Not In Benesch Fogg Man in Hat

Benesch A080a
Rembrandt?? Portrait of a Man in a Wide-Brimmed Hat c.1660?
Reed pen and brown ink with black chalk and white heightening; ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink.
187 x 158 chain lines 25v.
I have always harboured doubts about this drawing, as did Benesch. It should resemble the drawings for the Syndics more closely (Benesch 1178-80). Despite its alluring vigour and boldness, the overall effect seems too messy and incoherent compared with authentic drawings by Rembrandt.
USA Cambridge (Mass.), Fogg Art Museum (inv.1953.28)
Provenance: Franz Koenigs; D.G. van Beuningen; Lukas H. Peterich; C. Albert de Burlet

Ben A071a

Benesch A071a
Rembrandt?? The Disobedient Prophet attacked by a Lion (I KIngs XIII, 23-24)
Pen and brown ink, with some white heightening; inscribed with false 'signature', lower right: 'Rembrant' ; numbered '100' by Mariette; inscribed by Crozat below: 'Un prophete que St Jerome nomme Addon / est tué par un lion pour avoir desobei à Dieu quoyque par la supercherie d'un autre prophete Roys L. 3. c 19.'.
182 x 210
Benesch was, on balance, inclined to reject the drawing and I think he was probably right. The lack of a coherent structure is too evident in all parts except possibly the head and arms of the prophet. The many repeated outlines seem overdone compared with Rembrandt - one might say "a lot of lines for nothing" - and the mule looks almost as wooden as if it had come from a carousel. The highly suspect 'signature' may be in the same ink as the drawing itself; it seems to be written by the same hand as that on Benesch C41 (on which see below).
CH Private Collection, Geneva (Bonna)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Basel 1948, no.25; Starcky, 1993, p.218, n.11 (inscribed by Mariette and presumably from Crozat's collection).
Provenance: P. Crozat (?); E. Habich (NL??), his sale, Amsterdam, Muller, 1910; Dr Bernhard Hartmann (Basel-Riehen); by descent until sale, London, Christie's, 7 July, 2015, lot 39; acquired after the sale by the present owner.

Not in Benesch London Ctld Head of Woman

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? Head of a Woman c.1660
Pen and brown ink .
43 x 27.
In style close enough to the Self-Portrait drawings in Rotterdam and Vienna of c.1660 to merit inclusion in the 'attributed to Rembrandt' section (see Benesch 1176-77). My own view is that is probably is not by Rembrandt but by a late pupil, perhaps Aert de Gelder.
GB London, Courtauld Gallery (inv.D.1978.PG.189)
Provenance: Count Antoine Seilern, Princes Gate; bequeathed by him to the present repository in 1978.

Not in Benesch Edinburgh Claudius Civilis

Benesch Ad 1061
Follower of Rembrandt? The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis
Pen and brown ink with brown and grey wash; the colour of the washes is difficult to discern because of the condition, but a purplish tone is evident.
178 x 147 Watermark: Foolscap, with rather large horn-like embellishments to the top of the cap.
As pointed out by Eva Benesch, the style is close to that of a pupil's drawing in Munich, Benesch Ad1045a (Sumowski 814** as Van den Eeckhout), but it may reflect a lost drawing by Rembrandt.
GB Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland (inv.D 2862)
Further literature/remarks: Wegner, Kunstchronik, xxiii, 1970, p.31 (reporting Haverkamp-Begemann's discovery of the drawing, announced in a lecture in Chicago in October, 1969); Haverkamp-Begemann, in Simson and Kelch, 1973, pp.31-43 (Rembrandt); Exh. Berlin-Amsterdam, 1991-92, p.130 (not Rembrandt); Haverkamp-Begemann, 1992, p.461 (Rembrandt); Exh. Munich-Amsterdam, 1991-92, p.160 (school).
Provenance: Thomas Lawrence (L.2445).


Not in Benesch Frankfurt Ideal Landscape detail upper left
Not in Benesch Frankfurt Ideal Landscape detail lower left
Not in Benesch Frankfurt Ideal Landscape detail lower right
Not in Benesch View of a Windmill ex PR Amsterdam

Not in Benesch (HdG 811)
Rembrandt? A Windmill and Outhouses c.1650?
Pen and brown ink with brown wash; framing-lines in a different pen and brown ink; extra framing lines in yet another pen and brown ink on the top corner additions; inscribed verso in graphite, lower right : 'A9'
109 x 187; top corners cut. Watermark: fragment of the top of a Strasburg lily . Chain lines: 28-30v.
The risk to the attribution of this drawing to Rembrandt is formed by the possibility that it is by Pieter de With, to whom Benesch 1250 has been attributed by Peter Schatborn (Paris, 2010, no.163). However, the comparisons with De With's signed drawings are not convincing - his lines are broader and the details less refined. In the present work, the secure delineation of the structures and individual features (such as the sails of the windmill), the calligraphy of the foreground touches, the delicacy of the wash and the subtle treatment of aerial perspective and recession seem more like Rembrandt.
Condition: Good; some spotting and minor creasing have been removed since the 2002 sale.
COLLECTION: NL Amsterdam, Private Collection.
Further literature/remarks: HdG 811; Exh Paris, 1908, no.466; Exh. New York Met 1974-75, 'The Grand Gallery', no.110; Benesch, I, 1973, in the introduction by E. Benesch, p. xii (as one of four recently published drawings that 'deserve mention' and that Frits Lugt dated the drawing to the 1640s).
Provenance: Paul Mathey; Ludwig Vogelstein Foundation; their sale, London, Christie's, 27 November, 1973, lot 343, repr.; Schickman (dealer); sale. New York, Sotheby's, 25 January, 2002, lot 49, repr..

Not in Benesch L BM Landscape with Cottages and di

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Landscape with Cottages, Meadows and a Distant Windmill c.1650
Pen and brown ink with brown wash on paper prepared with pale greyish-brown wash; framing lines in pen and brown ink.
98 x 212.
For a discussion of this drawing, the attribution of which is controversial, see London, 2010 (online), no.64.
GB London, British Museum (1895,0915.1257)

Not in Benesch London BM watercolour

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Landscape with a Cottage and Two Haybarns c.1650
Pen and brown ink, with grey and coloured washes in green, blue and brown, touched of white (partly discoloured to pink).
125 x 210
The attribution of this drawing to Rembrandt has proven highly controversial, but I stick with it! For a summary of the arguments and further literature, see the British Museum website (London, 2010 [online], no.66). The arguments proposed in 1991 (see Literature) have never been adequately refuted.
GB London, British Museum (inv. 1895,0915.1282)
FURTHER LITERATURE/REMARKS: Sumowski, 1979 etc., no.2316xx, repr. (Ruisscher?); Royalton-Kisch, 1991, pp.10-19, repr. in colour, pl.IV (entirely by Rembrandt); Exh. Amsterdam, 2014, p.22, repr. and under no.42 (as 'Attributed to Ruisscher'; compares Washington inv.1954.12.114 and Lugt Benesch A35b ‘Ruisscher’ landscapes).

Not in Benesch Omval Sothebys 6 July 2005 lot 164

Not in Benesch
Copy after Rembrandt?
The Omval seen from the Amsteldijk c.1652/1670
Pen and brown ink with brown wash
38 x 184
The tame and rather timid lines suggest that the drawing is a copy, perhaps based on a lost Rembrandt - the style is close to Benesch 1321, Rembrandt's own view of the same scene. But the mill in the centre of Benesch 1321, which is missing here, burnt down by 1671 - something of which the copyist must have been aware.
USA Private Collection?
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Washington, 1990, p.199, n.1 (not Rembrandt); Exh. Amsterdam-Paris 1998-99, p.270, repr. fíg. 6 (Rembrandt(?); Chatsworth, 2002, III, p.429, under no.1496 (Rembrandt).
Provenance: Sale, Amsterdam, Christie's, 15 Nov.1983, lot 39 (called Rembrandt by E. Haverkamp-Begemann); sale, London, Sotheby's, 6 July, 2005, lot 164, £18,000 (Rembrandt School).

Benesch C041

Benesch C041
Van Renesse? Rembrandt?? Cottage with a White Paling c.1652
Pen and brown ink with brown wash heightened with white (with some later additions in purplish ink)
170 x 255. An added strip of paper below (not quite in its original position, but was in the present position when the purplish additions were made). No watermark.
Long before publishing a number of comparable landscape drawings as the work of Constantijn Daniel van Renesse (Royalton-Kisch, 2000.I) I had been concerned that the style of this drawing, even after allowing for the later additions, was far removed from Rembrandt. The connection with Rembrandt's etching of 1648 (Bartsch 232) is not convincing: the style here is later (and even the trees have grown). The resemblance to Van Renesse's drawings, such as Benesch 1351, is inescapable. The 'signature' does not appear to be autograph. (See Royalton-Kisch, 2012, p.469 under no.181.) It seems to be written by the same hand as that on Benesch A71a, also illustrated on this page.
NL Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. RP-T-1981-1). Peter Schatborn has informed me (again in an e-mail of 15 June 2015) that the handwriting can be associated with the 'Greek characters' collector's marks (L.2942-44). He believes such a mark may have been cut away from the top of the present sheet.

Not in Benesch Landscape with cottage among trees

Not in Benesch
Farmhouse between Trees c. 1650-1652
Pen and brown ink and brown wash (and later grey wash), on paper prepared light greyish-brown; ruled framing-lines in pen and brown ink.
108 x 176.
Compare the motif of Benesch 1249. Despite some weaknesses in the perspective and the unusual treatment of the tree foliage to the right, there seem to be sufficient reasons to accept the attribution to Rembrandt.
D Cologne, Prtivate collection.
Provenance: Marquis of Lansdowne; his sale, Amsterdam, Christie's, 14 November, 1994, lot 101 [f.345,000])

Not in Benesch View along a Village Road Sumo 1964b Brandt coll.

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? The Amstelveenseweg with a Gateway on the left c.1650-52?
Pen and brown ink.
I do not remember having seen this drawing, but it depicts the same view as Benesch 1242.-1243. Thus it could in theory be the work of a pupil seated next to Rembrandt, or possibly by Rembrandt himself, having moved his position a few yards. More probably, it is a copy based on Benesch 1242. An odd feature, or miscomprehension, is that the second post, in the centre of the drawing, has been shifted into the middle of the road where it would have blocked any wheeled traffic.
NL Amsterdam, Private Collection, Paul Brandt.
Further literature/remarks: Sumowski, 1964.I, p.245, repr. fig.14 (Rembrandt, c.1648-50); Exh. Amsterdam-Paris, 1998-99, p.320, n.3 (copy by a pupil?); London, 2010 (online), under no.69 (copy of Benesch 1242).

Not in Benesch Landscape Sloten from the East PC CH Geneva

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt: A View of Sloten from the East c.1650
Pen and brown ink with brown wash; framing lines in pen and brown ink; inscribed on tyhe mount in brown ink: 'Rembrandt-Van Rhin' and verso, in graphite (by Klingsor?): 'Rembrandt: Vue du village de Sloten [...]'
100 x 164
Drawn from a vantage-point an little closer to the village than Benesch 1237. Compare also the Oslo drawing illsutrated below.
CH Geneva, Private Collection (Jean Bonna)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Kassel-Leiden, 2006-2007, no.43, repr.; Exh. Paris, Institut Néerlandais, Dessins nordiques, 2008, no.25, repr.; Exh. New York-Edinburgh, 2009, no.49; Strasser, 2013, no.45, repr. (c.1650).
Provenance: Jan Pietersz. Zomer, Amsterdam?; Léon Leclère, called Tristan Klingsor, Paris; sale, Paris, Drouot Richelieu (Ader & De Maigret), 21 March, 2001, lot 59 (as Dutch School); David Lachenmann (dealer), Zurich, from whom acquired by the present owner.

Not in Benesch Dresden Kostverloren_I

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, Kostverloren House on the Amstel River c.1652
Pen brown ink with brown wash, touched with white bodycolour and red wash, on greyish paper; ruled framing lines in pen and brown ink; inscribed recto, lower right in pen and brown ink in an 18th century hand: 'Rembrandt'.
133 x 230. An added strip on the left.
D Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Kupferstich-Kabinett (inv. C 1910-52)
Further literature/remarks: Freise, Lilienfeld and Wichmann, no.88 Paper perhaps washed grey in preparation.. Ruled framing lines in PB.

Not in Benesch Landscape with Ruinous cottage Christies 23 Jan 2002_1

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, A Ruinous Cottage c.1650-52
Pen and brown ink with brown was (and later grey wash); traces of framing lines.
103 x 207. Arched top. Watermark: Strasburg Lily.
Mentioned in Benesch, 1973, I, p.xii. According to the Christie's lot description, the drawing was "first attributed to Rembrandt by Frits Lugt in a letter dated 16 November 1968. The attribution was subsequently confirmed by K.G. Boon, who dated the drawing to 1645-50, and by Professor Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann. The latter pointed out that "the gray wash was added to the drawing by a later hand."
Sold New York, Christie's, 23 January, 2002, lot 128 ($160,000)

Not Ben Inn on a Dyke Sotheby July 2014

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt, An Inn on a Dyke c.1652-55?
Reed pen and brown ink and (later) grey wash.
104 x 201.
Somewhat comparable in style to Benesch 1336-37. The condition of the sheet somewhat hampers any judgement but there seem to be sufficient analogies to sustain the attribution to Rembrandt, rather than to a follower such as Pieter de With. The building is a farm used as an inn, the projection to the right being a barn. The pole to the left is a navigational aid and it has been suggested that the inn lay on the Spaarndammerdijk on the IJ river to the west of Amsterdam.[1]
PROVENANCE: From an album belonging to Archibald Keightley (Registrar of Charterhouse in the early 19th Century and friend and executor of Sir Thomas Lawrence); by descent to his daughter, Sarah, who married Sir Charles Nicolson; by descent to their grandson, Sir John Nicolson; his sale, London, Sotheby's, 11 November, 1965, lot 64; sale, Amsterdam, Sotheby's, 2 November 2004, lot 78, repr.; private collection; sale, London, Sotheby's, 9 July, 2014, lot 108, repr..
[1] As proposed by B. Bakker and E. Schmitz in the 2014 Sotheby's catalogue. They refer to drawings of this area made by Jan Van Goyen in c.1651-52 (see Beck, 1972, vol.I, no.847/162).

Not in Benesch F P Lugt Landscape with Bear

Not in Benesch
Landscape with a Bear (after Titian) c.1650-52
Pen and brown ink, with some white heightening on brownish paper.
203 x 294.
Apparently a copy after a drawing by Titian, but the original is unknown.
F Paris, Fondation Custodia, Frits Lugt collection (inv. 6584)

Not in Benesch Berlin Landscape with Horse after Titian

Not in Benesch
Rembrandt?? after Titian
Landscape with a Horse c.1652-56?
Pen and brown ink. Inscribed in graphite lower left: 'A CARATS' [for Carracci]
199 x 298.
A copy after a drawing by Titian at Chatsworth.[1] Copies after other masters are often difficult to judge and this is no exception. While the attribution to Rembrandt seems possible, one to a pupil of follower, such as Willem Drost, seems more likely. Pieter de With's name has also been invoked.[2] It seems rather too literal a copy for Rembrandt to have made in his later career, despite some simplification of the details in the original. Much of the drawing has been 'gone over' in a darker ink, exacerbating the difficulty of makiing a definitve assessment.
D Berlin, Staatliche Museen Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett (KdZ 17598)
Further literature/remarks: Exh. Venice, 1976, under no.47; Winner, 1979, pp.221-24 (Rembrandt); Exh. Washington, 1990, no.38; Exh. Paris-Haarlem, 1997-98, under no.18 (attributed to Rembrandt); Berlin, 2006, p.204, repr. p.205 (attributed to Pieter de With); Berlin, 2018, no.113 (as Attributed to De With).
[1] Inv.751, see Exh. Washington, 1990, no.38a, repr.; Chatsworth, 1994, no.841, repr..
[2] By Bevers in Berlin, 2006, pp.204-205.

Not in Benesch Chats Landscape after Titian inv 74

Not in Benesch
Attributed to Pieter de With
Landscape with Buildings and Lovers Embracing, after Titian or Campagnola
Pen and brown ink
140 x 202; chain lines 31-32v
Formerly attributed to Titian or his school, the drawing is based on another, similar sketch attributed to the Italian master now also at Chatsworth (inv.749A; Chatsworth, 2002, no.842). The suggestion that the draughtsman here is De With (to whom the preceeding drawing in the present list has been ascribed) is based on a comparison with De With's signed drawings, including one in the Lugt Collection (Paris 2010, no.161, repr.) and a drawing in the British Museum that is inscribed with his name on the verso (inv.Oo,9.88; London, 2010 [online] De With no.3, repr.).[1]
Collection: GB Chatsworth, Trustees of the Chatsworth Settlement (inv.749B)
Further literature/remarks: Byam Shaw, 1980, p.390 (Rembrandt after Titian); Rosand, 1992, p.173, repr. fig.14 (lovers in shade also seen in Three Trees etching et al.; significant in pastoral traditions); Chatsworth, 2002, no.1471, repr. (Rembrandt; with earlier literature); Paris, 2010, under no.16 (without attribution).
Provenance: Peter Lely (L.2092); 2nd Duke of Devonshire? Thence by descent.
1. The attribution made here 2 February 2014. I am grateful to correspondence with Amy Golahny for prompting me to re-examine this drawing and include it here.



Not in Benesch Girl in Oriental Dress London BM

Not in Benesch
Retouched by Rembrandt?
A girl in Oriental dress c.1647-52
Black chalk, touched with pen and brown ink
118 x 72
The idea that some of the decorative strokes in the dress, made with fluid confidence, could be retouches by Rembrandt never leaves me.
GB London, British Museum (inv.1935,0608.8)

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